These characteristics could be either high or low and were independent of one another. In addition to these studies, leadership has been examined from an academic perspective through several theoretical lenses: Beyond this point, the two theories of management diverge.
Contemporary leadership scholars and researchers have often been questioned about the nature of their work, and its place within the academy, but much of the confusion surrounding leadership as a field of study may be attributed to a lack of understanding regarding transdisciplinaryinter- and multi- disciplinary academic fields of study in general.
The findings indicated that the two most important dimensions in leadership included: These theories described employee motivation in the workforce. The Michigan Studies of Leadership  which began in the s  and indicated that leaders could be classified as either "employee centered," or "job centered.
They developed the leadership grid which focused on concern for results on the one axis and concern for people on the other axis. Most of these academic programs have aimed to be multidisciplinary in nature—drawing upon theories and applications from related fields such as sociologypsychologyphilosophyand management.
The transactional leader focuses on managerial reward and contingent valuation. Incorporate environmental and situational considerations into leader behavior.
The transformational leader focuses on motivation and goal attainment. Both theories begin with the premise that the role of management is to assemble the factors of production, including people, for the economic benefit of the firm.
The research was based on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates. The Ohio State Leadership Studies which began in the s  and focused on how leaders could satisfy common group needs. Some of the styles of leadership studied include: Such an approach, Rost has argued "allows scholars and practitioners to think radically new thoughts about leadership that are not possible from a unidisciplinary approach" p.
Collectively, the research findings on leadership provide a far more sophisticated and complex view of the phenomenon than most of the simplistic views presented in the popular press.
Attempt to describe the types of behavior and personality tendencies associated with effective leadership.Leadership studies is a multidisciplinary academic field of study that focuses on leadership in organizational contexts and in human life.
Leadership studies has origins in the social sciences (e.g., sociology, anthropology, psychology), in humanities (e.g., history and philosophy), as well as in professional and applied fields of study (e.g., management and education).Download